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Read the following text:

(1) The invention of the safety bicycle in the late nineteenth century transformed the world of cycling. While early versions of bicycles had been used in Europe since the seventeenth century, it was the safety bicycle with its lightweight hollow steel frame and equal-sized wheels that revolutionised the cycling experience.

(2) This resulted in enhanced mobility for both men and women, allowing them to explore the countryside freely and travel between towns. Bicycles symbolised freedom, particularly for women, granting them self-reliable transportation and the ability to participate in recreational activities, like bicycle racing. The rise of bicycles also brought a shift in fashion, with more functional and relaxed clothing tailored specifically for cycling.

(3) Bicyclists also became a political force. They played a significant role in the development of road maps, guiding riders along the best routes. They campaigned for better infrastructure to enhance their riding experiences.

(4) Today, advances in technology, wearables* and complex data analysis have transformed sports science, particularly in endurance sports, like cycling. Cyclists can now gather vast amounts of data simply by using mobile apps to track their activities. This data not only encompasses exercise details, like its volume or intensity, but also external factors like the impact of weather on the physiological response of the athlete. Furthermore, technology has made it very easy to monitor performance-influencing data outside of training, such as heart rate or sleep quality, through various wearables and cost-effective mobile apps.

(5) However, just because we are able to monitor so much information does not mean that it is useful for improving the sports performance of our athletes. In this sense, we believe that we must be critical while adopting any new technologies or trends in training. The first thing we should know is whether there is scientific support for the use of that new gadget or wearable. For example, core temperature is of great importance in the mechanisms that produce fatigue and exhaustion in endurance sports. A few years ago, a device came on the market that estimated this measurement in a non-invasive way and we saw many top cyclists and runners wearing it. However, a study later showed it is an invalid device for measuring one's temperature.

(6) Innovation in cycling has evolved from the invention of safety bicycles to technological advancements in sports science. Maximizing the potential benefits of these developments requires critical thinking to enhance the training and performance of modern cyclists.


*wearables - technological devices worn on the body for data collection

Answer the following questions based on the passage above: 

i. What is the passage mainly about? 

A. How did the advancement of sports science impact the fashion industry? 

B. What were the primary societal changes brought about by the rise of bicycles? 

C. How did the invention of the safety bicycle contribute to the development of wearable technology? 

D. In what ways did early versions of bicycles differ from the safety bicycle in the late nineteenth century? 

iii. Complete the sentence appropriately by providing two distinct reasons in the blank below. 

It can be said the world of cycling has seen massive changes because __________. 

iv. Which of these is opposite to 'invalid' as used in paragraph 5? 

A. ethical 

B. accurate 

C. authentic 

D. trustworthy

v. Using information solely from the passage, provide two distinct reasons to complete the sentence appropriately. Bicycles can be seen as a symbol of empowerment because ____________. 

vi. Imagine you are a sports scientist tasked with developing a new technological tool to aid cyclists in their training. Provide a brief description, within 40 words, of its specific features and why you chose to include them.

vii. Select the option that shows the correct relationship between (1) and (2). 

(1) Cyclists were able to improve the accuracy of maps. 

(2) Cyclists became influential and campaigned for better infrastructure. 

A. (2) is a contradiction of (1) 

B. (2) is independent of (1) 

C. (2) is an example of (1) 

D. (2) is the cause of (1)

viii. Below are statements from cyclists. Identify two statements that could be said by a cyclist in the late nineteenth century. 

1. "I like having a personal coach on my wrist. It just told me how many calories I have burned so far!" 

2. "It's quite a struggle riding up these steep hills on my heavy steelframed bicycle." 

3. "I feel so liberated whenever I hop on my bicycle. I didn't have freedom like this before!" 

4. "Ugh, there is so much traffic ahead. And I feel so pressured to meet my performance targets every time I hop on a bike."

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(i) B. What were the primary societal changes brought about by the rise of bicycles? 

[The option aligns with the main idea of the passage. The passage primarily discusses the societal changes brought about by the rise of bicycles, such as enhanced mobility, greater freedom for women, and a shift in fashion for more functional clothing tailored for cycling.]

(ii) C. "...just because we can monitor so much information does not mean it is useful." (paragraph 5) 

[In this option, the author expresses uncertainty about the usefulness of the vast amount of data that can be monitored through new technologies. The phrase "does not mean it is useful" shows the author's hesitation and doubt regarding the practical benefits of collecting such extensive data.]

(iii) it transitioned from primarily using steel cycles to safety bicycles and saw technological advancements, like wearables in sports science.

(iv) B. accurate 

[In paragraph 5, the author discusses a device that was deemed 'invalid' for measuring core temperature. Here, 'invalid' means the device is not accurate in providing the intended measurement. Therefore, the antonym for 'invalid' would be 'accurate', which means to correctly provide information.]

(v) they facilitated women's freedom to commute freely and easily between places and participate in recreational activities like bicycle racing.

(vi) The tool would offer customized training recommendations and plans, integrated GPS for improved navigation, analysis and feedback capabilities, and social features for connecting with fellow cyclists. This comprehensive approach would enhance cyclists' performance by providing tailored training opportunities and fostering a supportive community.

(vii) D. (2) is the cause of (1) 

[(2) indicates that the popularity of cycling provided cyclists with enhanced political influence, which they used to advocate for better infrastructure. With this influence, they were able to improve the accuracy of maps. Therefore, (2) is the cause of (1).]

(viii) 2,3

2. "It's quite a struggle riding up these steep hills on my heavy steelframed bicycle." 

3. "I feel so liberated whenever I hop on my bicycle. I didn't have freedom like this before!"